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The twenty-two Immutable Laws of Marketing ► Marketing Book ►Summary Book

The twenty-two Immutable Laws of Marketing by Al Ries as well as Jack Trout

The Law of Resources. The Law of Acceleration. The Law of Hype. The Law of Failure. The Law of Success. The Law of Unpredictability. The Law of Singularity. The Law of Candor. The Law of Attributes. The Law of Sacrifice. The Law of Line Extension. The Law of Perspective. The Law of Division. The Law of the Opposite. The Law of Duality. The Law of the Ladder. The Law of Exclusivity. The Law of Focus. The Law of Perception. The Law of the Mind. The Law of Category. The Law of Leadership.
The 22 Immutable Laws of Marketing: Violate Them at Your Own Risk!


The twenty-two Immutable Laws of Marketing


  1. The Law of Resources.
  2. The Law of Acceleration.
  3. The Law of Hype.
  4. The Law of Failure.
  5. The Law of Success.
  6. The Law of Unpredictability.
  7. The Law of Singularity.
  8. The Law of Candor.
  9. The Law of Attributes.
  10. The Law of Sacrifice.
  11. The Law of Line Extension.
  12. The Law of Perspective.
  13. The Law of Division.
  14. The Law of the Opposite.
  15. The Law of Duality.
  16. The Law of the Ladder.
  17. The Law of Exclusivity.
  18. The Law of Focus.
  19. The Law of Perception.
  20. The Law of the Mind.
  21. The Law of Category.
  22. The Law of Leadership.






The twenty-two Immutable Laws of Marketing Summary




Chapter one: The Law of Leadership

Summary: It is advisable to be for starters then it's much better.

It is easier to enter the brain first than to attempt to persuade a person you've a much better product as opposed to the one which did get there initially.

In our competitive atmosphere, a me-too item with a line extension title has very little hope of being a huge lucrative manufacturer.

The leading brand at any class is practically always the very first brand into the prospect's mind.

Not every very first will achieve success. Timing is a problem - your first might be very late.

Individuals are likely to stay with what they have got.

One reason why the very first manufacturer is likely to keep the leadership of its would be that the title usually gets generic (e.g. How can I create a Xerox?).

In case you are introducing the very first brand in a brand new category, you need to actually attempt to choose a title which may work generically.

Advertising is actually a fight of perceptions, not products.


Chapter two: The Law of Category.

Summary: In case you cannot be initiated in a class, create a brand new category you are able to be first in.

In case you did not get into the prospect's mind first, do not quit hope. Look for an innovative category you are able to be first in. It is not as tough as you may well think.

Once you launch a brand new device, the very first question to think about isn't How's this item better compared to the competition? but First what? In other words, what category is actually this new item first in?

Everybody is keen on what is new. Few individuals are keen on what is better.

When you are the very first in a brand new category, give the group. Essentially, you've no competition.


Chapter three: The Law of The Mind.

Summary: It is advisable to be initially in the head than to be first in the marketplace.

Being initially in the marketplace is essential just to the degree that it enables you to get in the head initially.

You cannot alter ahead when a brain is made up.

The single most wasteful item you are able to do in advertising is attempting to alter ahead.

In the event that you would like to make a huge impression on somebody else, you can't worm the way of yours in the head of theirs and then gradually build up a favorable opinion with a space of time. The brain does not work the way. You've blasted the way of yours into the brain.


Chapter four: The Law of Perception.

Summary: Marketing isn't a fight of items, it is a battle of perception.

Just about all that is present in the planet of advertising are actually perceptions in the minds of the consumer or even prospect. The perception is actually reality. Everything is an illusion.

Mainly by learning how perceptions are created in the head and focusing the marketing plans of yours on those perceptions is it possible to overcome your generally incorrect advertising instincts.

The thing that makes the fight harder is the fact that clients often make purchasing choices based on second-hand perceptions. Rather than using their own perceptions of theirs, they base the purchasing choices of theirs on someone else's perception of reality. This's the everyone knows the process.


The Law of Resources. The Law of Acceleration. The Law of Hype. The Law of Failure. The Law of Success. The Law of Unpredictability. The Law of Singularity. The Law of Candor. The Law of Attributes. The Law of Sacrifice. The Law of Line Extension. The Law of Perspective. The Law of Division. The Law of the Opposite. The Law of Duality. The Law of the Ladder. The Law of Exclusivity. The Law of Focus. The Law of Perception. The Law of the Mind. The Law of Category. The Law of Leadership. 
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Chapter five: The Law of Focus. 

Summary: Probably the most effective idea of advertising is actually having a word in the prospect's mind.

A business is able to end up extremely effective in case it could get a means to have a word in the head of the prospect. Not a complex word. Not an invented one.

The basic words are ideal, words taken right from the dictionary.
The leader has the term which stands for the group.

You are able to evaluate the validity of a leadership claim by a word association test.

In case you are not really a leader, then the word of yours has to have a narrow focus. A lot more important, nonetheless, the word of yours must be for sale in the class of yours. Nobody else may have a lock on it.

Probably the most useful words are easy and advantageous orientated. Regardless of how complex the item, regardless of just how complicated the requirements of the marketplace, it is usually preferable to concentrate on one term or maybe advantage instead of 2 or perhaps 3 or perhaps 4.

Words are available in varieties that are several. They may be gain linked (captivity prevention), service associated (home delivery), audience associated (younger folks), or maybe sales-related (preferred brand).

There will come a moment every time a business should change terms.
You cannot take someone else's word.

What will not operate in advertising is giving the own word of yours in search of a term owned by others.

You cannot narrow the focus with quality or maybe some additional strategy that does not have proponents for the opposite point of view.

If you build the word of yours to concentrate on, be well prepared to fend off the lawyers.

When you've the word of yours, you've to go out of the way of yours to defend it in the marketplace.

2 firms can't very own the identical word of the prospect's mind.


Chapter six: The Law of Exclusivity. 

Summary: 2 firms can't very own the identical word of the prospect's mind.

Whenever a competitor has a word or maybe position for the prospect's mind, it's useless to make an attempt to have precisely the same term.


Chapter seven: The Law of The Ladder. 

Summary: The technique you make use of is dependent on which rung you occupy on the ladder.

All items aren't created equal. There is a hierarchy in the head that prospects utilize in making choices.

For every group, there's a solution ladder in the head. On each rung is a brand.

The advertising method of yours must rely on exactly how eventually you got into the brain and consequently which rung of the ladder you occupy.
The taller the greater, of course.

The brain is discerning. Prospects work with the ladders of theirs in determining which info to recognize and which info to reject. Generally, a brain accepts just new information which is in line with the product ladder of its in this class. Anything else is dismissed.

Products that are bought occasionally and involve an unpleasant encounter typically have hardly any rungs on the ladders of theirs.

The best solution which entails probably the least level of enjoyment and it bought just once in a lifetime has no rungs on the ladder of its.

There is a relationship between market share and the role of yours on the ladder at the prospect's mind. You have a tendency to have two times the market share of the brand listed below you and half the market share of the brand above you.

7 will be the maximum amount of rungs on a ladder at the prospect's mind.
Occasionally the own ladder of yours, or maybe category, is simply too little. It may be a lot better to become a tiny fish in a huge pond than to become a huge fish in a tiny fish-pond. Put simply, it is at times to be No. three on a huge ladder compared to No. one on a tiny ladder.

Before beginning some advertising plan, think about, Where are we on the ladder at the prospect's mind?

In the long term, every market becomes a two-horse race.


Chapter eight: The Law of Duality. 

Summary: In the long term, every market becomes a two-horse race.

Early on, a brand new category is a ladder of countless rungs. Steadily, the ladder becomes a two rung affair.

If you consider the very long view of advertising, you locate the fight typically winds up as being a titanic fight between 2 major players - typically the good old reliable manufacturer and also the new upstart.

In a maturing business, third place is a hard place to be in.
Knowing that advertising is a two-horse race, in the long term, can easily enable you to plan technique in the short term.

In case you are shooting for second place, the method of yours is actually driven by the leader.


Chapter nine: The Law of Opposite.

Summary: In case you are shooting for second place, the method of yours is actually driven by the leader.

A business must control the leader's strength into a weakness.

You have to find out the essence of the leader and after that provide the prospect with the opposite. (In other words, do not attempt to be much better, try to be) that is different. It is usually the upstart versus good old dependable.

By positioning yourself against the leader, you are taking business away from all of the other options to No. one.

You have to represent yourself as the answer.

As merchandise gets old, it usually accrues a number of bad damage.

Advertising is normally a balance for legitimacy. The very first manufacturer which captures the idea is frequently capable to show the competitors of its as illegitimate pretenders.

A very good No.2 cannot pay for to be timid. If you provide up paying attention to No. one, you are making yourself vulnerable to not just the leader but to the majority of the pack.

The Law of Resources. The Law of Acceleration. The Law of Hype. The Law of Failure. The Law of Success. The Law of Unpredictability. The Law of Singularity. The Law of Candor. The Law of Attributes. The Law of Sacrifice. The Law of Line Extension. The Law of Perspective. The Law of Division. The Law of the Opposite. The Law of Duality. The Law of the Ladder. The Law of Exclusivity. The Law of Focus. The Law of Perception. The Law of the Mind. The Law of Category. The Law of Leadership.
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Chapter ten: The Law of Diversion. 

Summary: Over time, a category is going to divide and turn into 2 or even more types.

A group starts off as being a single entity. But over time, the category breaks up into some other segments.

Businesses make some mistakes once they attempt to take a popular brand in a single category as well as make use of exactly the same brand in an additional class.

What keeps leaders from launching a unique manufacturer to go over a brand new category is actually the worry of what'll happen to their current models.

Timing is crucial. You could be too soon to exploit a brand new category.
It is advisable to be premature compared to late. You cannot get into the prospect's thought process initially only if you are ready to invest time watching for things to produce.


Chapter eleven: The Law of Perspective.

Summary: Marketing influences occur for a prolonged time.

Chapter twelve: The Law of Line Extension Summary: There is an irresistible strain to lengthen the equity of the brand.

The law of line extension is actually probably the most violated law.
If you attempt to be all things to other individuals, you inevitably wind up in difficulty.

Line extension involves having the brand associated with a profitable product and placing it on a brand new item you intend to introduce.

In the end and in the presence of extreme competition, line extension hardly ever works.

Invariably, the leader at any sort of class is the brand that's not line extended.

One reason best control think line extension works is actually since it could be a winner in the short term.


Chapter thirteen: The Law of Sacrifice. 

Summary: You've to quit something to get something.

In case you wish to achieve success, you've to narrow the focus to be able to create a position in the prospect's mind.

For a brand new brand to achieve success, it ought to be first in a brand new category. Or maybe the brand new brand ought to be positioned as a substitute to the leader.

The law of sacrifice is actually the complete opposite of the law of line extension. In case you wish to achieve success today, you need to provide one thing up.

You will find 3 things to sacrifice:
1. Product line
2. Target market
3. change that is Constant

In case you wish to achieve success, you've to bring down the product line of yours, not extend it.

The word of business is actually populated by large, really diversified generalists and small, directly focused specialists.
The most effective way to keep a regular job isn't to modify it in the very first spot.


Chapter fourteen: The Law of Attributes. 

Summary: For each attribute, there's an exact opposite, strong feature.

For example, since Crest owned cavities, various other toothpastes stayed away from cavities & jumped on various other characteristics as taste, whitening, breath safety, etc.

Advertising is a fight of ideas. Thus, in case you're succeeding, you have to have a concept or maybe a feature of your own to focus the efforts of yours around. Without anyone, you should have a low cost. A really affordable.
Once you admit a bad, the possibility is going to give you a good.


Chapter fifteen: The Law of Candor. 

Summary: Once you admit a bad, the possibility is going to give you a good.
Candor is quite disarming.

Every bad declaration you are making about yourself is immediately recognized as fact. Positive claims, on the additional hand, are actually looked at as questionable at best. Particularly in marketing.

You've to show an optimistic declaration to the prospect's satisfaction. No evidence is required for a bad declaration.

In case the name of yours is actually bad, you've 2 choices: change the title or even make fun of it. The one idea you cannot do is dismiss an undesirable rap.

Admitting an issue is one thing few businesses do.

Whenever a business begins a message by acknowledging an issue, individuals seem to, almost naturally, open the minds of theirs.

The law of candor should be utilized thoroughly and with great skill. For starters, your negative should be generally perceived as bad. It's to bring about a quick agreement for your prospect's mind.

 In case the negative doesn't register fast, the possibility of yours is going to be mixed up and can question, What is all of this about? Next, you've to shift fairly quickly to the positive. The goal of candor is not to apologize. The goal of candor is usually to get a benefit which is going to convince the prospect of yours.


Chapter sixteen: The Law of Singularity. 

Summary: In each circumstance, just one action is going to produce sizable outcomes.

History teaches that the one and only thing that operates in advertising is the sole, bold stroke.

Unless you create your competitor's plans, you cannot predict the future.


Chapter seventeen: The Law of Predictability. 

Summary: Unless you create your competitors' plans, you cannot predict the future.

Failure to forecast cut-throat impulse is a significant reason behind advertising failures.

Effective short term preparation is coming up with this angle or maybe word which differentiates your business or product. You then put up a coherent long-range advertising guidance than builds an application to optimize this angle or perhaps concept. it is not really a long term strategy, It is a long term path.

Although you cannot predict the future, you are able to get yourself a handle on trends, which happens to be a means to make the most of change.

If you think that nothing is going to change, you're predicting the future simply as surely as if you think that something will change. Remember Peter's Law. The unexpected usually occurs.

A good way to handle an unpredictable planet is building a huge quantity of freedom in the business of yours. As changes come sweeping through the class of yours, you've to be ready to alter as well as change rapidly in case you're surviving in the long run.

Victory typically results in arrogance, and arrogance to failure.


The Law of Resources. The Law of Acceleration. The Law of Hype. The Law of Failure. The Law of Success. The Law of Unpredictability. The Law of Singularity. The Law of Candor. The Law of Attributes. The Law of Sacrifice. The Law of Line Extension. The Law of Perspective. The Law of Division. The Law of the Opposite. The Law of Duality. The Law of the Ladder. The Law of Exclusivity. The Law of Focus. The Law of Perception. The Law of the Mind. The Law of Category. The Law of Leadership.
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Chapter eighteen: The Law of Success. 

Summary: Success usually leads to arrogance, and arrogance to failure.
The ego is actually the enemy of effective advertising.

When individuals start to be effective, they have a tendency to be less unbiased. They frequently substitute their own judgment of theirs for what the industry wants.

Success is usually the fatal component behind the rash of line extensions. If a brand is actually effective, the business assumes the title is actually the main reason behind the brand's success. So that they promptly search for some other items to plaster the title on.

The more you identify with the brand of yours or maybe business brand, the much more likely you're falling into the line extension capture.

Outstanding marketers have the capability to believe as a possibility believes. They place themselves in the shoes of the customers of theirs. They do not impose the own view of theirs of the earth on the circumstances.

The larger the business, the much more likely it's that the chief executive has lost touch with the front lines.

Malfunction is usually to be excepted as well as acknowledged.


Chapter nineteen: The Law of Failure. 

Summary: Failure would be to be anticipated as well as accepted.

A lot of businesses attempt to fix things rather compared to drop items.

Admitting an error and not doing something about it as terrible for the professional career of yours. An even better program is recognizing failure first & lower the losses of yours.

No one has at any time been fired for a bold move they did not make.


Chapter twenty: The Law of Hype. 

Summary: A scenario is usually the complete opposite of the manner in which it seems like in the press.

When everything is going good, a business does not require the hype. If you want the hype it usually means that you are in danger.


Chapter twenty one: The Law of Acceleration. 

Summary: programs that are Successful aren't made on fads, they are built on trends.

A fad is actually a trend in the ocean, along with a trend is actually the tide. A fad gets a great deal of hype, along with a direction gets not much.

Forget fads. So when they appear, attempt to dampen them. One method to keep a long term need for the items of yours is to in no way completely satisfy the need.


Chapter twenty-two: The Law of Resources. 

Summary: Without sufficient funding, a concept will not get off the ground.

Actually, the very best idea in the world will not go quite much without having the funds to get it off of the ground.

The Law of Resources. The Law of Acceleration. The Law of Hype. The Law of Failure. The Law of Success. The Law of Unpredictability. The Law of Singularity. The Law of Candor. The Law of Attributes. The Law of Sacrifice. The Law of Line Extension. The Law of Perspective. The Law of Division. The Law of the Opposite. The Law of Duality. The Law of the Ladder. The Law of Exclusivity. The Law of Focus. The Law of Perception. The Law of the Mind. The Law of Category. The Law of Leadership.


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